- This review describes the current knowledge about cell subsets involved in vasculogenesis (i.e., differentiation of endothelial cells from mesodermal precursors) and angiogenesis (i.e., blood vessel generation from pre-existing vessels), together with recent findings about angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapies in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
- There has been an increasing interest in recent years in the stromal cell system functioning in the support of hematopoiesis. The stromal cell system has been proposed to consist of marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into various connective tissue lineages. Recent efforts demonstrated that the multiple mesenchymal lineages can be clonally derived from a single mesenchymal stem cell, supporting the proposed paradigm. Dexter demonstrated in 1982 that an adherent stromal-like culture was able to support maintenance of hematopoietic stem as well as early B lymphopoeisis.
- The field of chemokine biology is a rapidly advancing one, with over 50 chemokines identified that mediate their effects through one or more of 16 different chemokine receptors. Chemokines, originally identified as chemotactic cytokines, manifest a number of functions, including modulation of blood cell production at the level of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and the directed movement of these early blood cells. This report reviews chemokines and chemokine/receptor activities mainly in the context of hematopoietic cell regulation and the numerous chemokines that manifest suppressive activity on proliferation of stem/progenitor cells.