The stem cells of the bone marrow have the capacity for both self-renewal and derivation of all the blood cell lineages. Consequently, toxicity to these cells can result in neutropenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, or aplastic anemia. Many anticancer drugs adversely affect the bone marrow, and neutropenia is a common limiting factor in dose escalation. In this review, we discuss agents that appear to have potential as bone marrow sparing agents. Computerized catalogs of the National Library of Medicine and Medline were searched for reports on low–molecular-weight compounds that detailed effects on the hematopoietic progenitor cells.